American Revolution: Battle of Second River (Belleville), New Jersey

The Skirmish at Second River

(Belleville), September 1777

George Washington's Retreat Route

The old Belleville Dutch Reformed Church cemetery is on the west side of the Iglesia Pentecostal La Senda Antigua, 171 Main St., at the corner of Main and Rutgers streets. The cemetery is located along General George Washington's retreat route, and which left behind a contingent of local militia who in a two-day battle delayed British troops as Washington's men retreated.

Battle of Belleville marker, Mill Street, Belleville Park

Battle memorial in Belleville Park on Mill Street.

The second day battle is marked by a memorial in what is now Belleville Park along Mill Street, site of the only battle fought in Essex County during the American Revolution.

Private Benjamin Salter, Eastern Battalion, Morris County Militia, was killed in action in Belleville in the second day of fighting during the Battle of Second River on Sept. 14, 1777. Private Salter would have been buried there in an unmarked grave on or alongside the battlefield. Eight British soldiers were also killed and buried in what today is Belleville Park along the flowing waters of  the Second River.

With the initial attack on the village on Sept. 12, riders were dispatched to call in reinforcements. General William Winds commander of the Eastern Morris battalion headquartered in what is now Rockaway, assembled his troops and marched to Belleville where he set up his field headquarters on what is now Franklin Street in the Silver Lake section of town.

From that position he directed the second day of fighting along with Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt of Belleville, commander of the 2nd Essex Regiment. The American position on that day was located along what is now Mill St. between Union and Franklin Ave.

Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt, the highest ranking Revolutionary War officer from Essex County,  is buried in the Van Cortlandt crypt in the old Belleville Dutch Reformed Church cemetery. General William Winds is buried in the cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church in Rockaway.

In September 1777 there was an engagement which is most frequently referred to as the “Battle of Second River”.  [Originally known as "Second River" or "Washington", the inhabitants renamed the settlement "Belleville" in 1797. ] It is for this engagement that a memorial plaque has been erected in the park. The British intended to expand their invasion with a larger force in central Jersey. But first, they had to pass through Second River and beneath the old church tower.

Eyes in the tower saw the advance and sounded the alarm. Under the direction of Captains Hornblower, Joralemon, Rutgers and Rutan, a defense was prepared. Skirmishes went on for two days. It began with an artillery barrage of our town followed by musket and cannon battles in the streets.

Sending for reinforcements, the American troops valiantly held their ground and managed to damage British General. Sir Henry Clinton’s hilltop headquarters with a direct hit from a cannonball, which happened to be on what is now Franklin Ave. September 14th turned into an all-day pitched battle.

With patriot reinforcements pouring in from neighboring communities, front lines eventually took shape near to Mill Street and Union Avenue. The British forces, overwhelming in numbers, eventually broke through. But once again, the local militia had succeeded in delaying the advance and weakening the invading army.

A skirmish was recorded on Jan. 27, 1777, between British foraging party and large body of rebels, according to Battles and Skirmishes in New Jersey.  That source says that on June 1, 1779, the militia captured a Tory named Lawrence as he enlists men for the British Army.

A large boulder also rests at the fork in the road between Union and Franklin Avenues on Mill Street as a landmark to mark the spot where the final shots of the Battle of the Second River were fired. A bronze plaque was placed on the rock in 1932.

Sources: Norman Price, Village of Second River author; Michael Perrone, Dave Hinrichs, The Belleville Times. David C. Munn, Battles and Skirmishes of the American Revolution in New Jersey, Belleville Sons Honor Roll.

News Article

"Schuyler Mansion played a role during the Revolutionary War Era. When Lord Howe of England took possession of New York Harbor, the nearness of Schuyler Mansion drew many of his officers. They generally traveled over a road that today is referred to as the Belleville Turnpike. It was originally made of cedar logs from the nearby swamps in 1759.

"During September 1777, General Henry Clinton, head of the British Expeditionary Forces in America, selected Schuyler Mansion for his headquarters during one of his more important raiding operations which included the famed Battle of Second River. The Mansion stood until 1924, a period of 214 years, when it was torn down by a land development company."

- See more at:

George Washingon Retreat route - 1776 Canon Memorial Proposed Site, Belleville, NJ photo by Anthony Buccino

Approximate site of militia cannon. American Revolution battle proposed memorial site.

A cannon on the Belleville side of the Passaic River held back British troops during Washington's retreat in September 1777. A cannon shot is credited with landing in the Schuyler mansion across the river and up the hill in Kearny. The Belleville Historical Society is developing plans to erect a memorial on the riverbank to commemorate the Second River defenses located here to hold back British troops during Washington's Retreat.


Belleville Sons Honor Roll.

Dave Hinrichs, The Belleville Times

David C. Munn, Battles and Skirmishes of the American Revolution in New Jersey,

Michael Perrone, Belleville Historical Society

Norman Price, Village of Second River author

See also: Revolutionary War Sites in Belleville, N.J.

Belleville Sons Honor Roll

  A Place of Honor and Remembrance In the Home of the Brave

Belleville, New Jersey

American Revolution

Belleville and Nutley were the village of Second River, that is, the village included all the land between the Second and Third rivers, or roughly from present day Mill Street in Belleville to Kingsland Road at the Nutley-Clifton border.


BELLEVILLE SONS HONOR ROLL - Remembering the men who paid for our freedom; photo by Robert Caruso, used by permission.

Belleville Sons Honor Roll
Remembering the men who paid for our freedom

In the last century, Belleville lost 157 sons while in service to our country. This collection, gathered from newspaper clippings and other sources gathers what we know about these young men in an effort that their sacrifice not be forgotten.  

Belleville Sons Honor Roll includes more information on Belleville actions in the American Revolution, War of 1812, Civil War, the Civil War diary of James C. Taylor, World War I, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War and peacetime casualties.

Edited by Anthony Buccino and  Andrea Buccino

Available in Nook, Kindle and Amazon.

Belleville and Nutley NJ in the Civl war - a brief history - by Anthony Buccino

Belleville and Nutley in the Civil War - a brief history  

by Anthony Buccino

A compilation documenting the participation of the New Jersey towns of Belleville and Nutley in the American Civil War. Publication includes information on six local soldiers killed in action in the War Between the States, plus information on the battle campaigns in which they gave up their lives. Also lists information on participation in various New Jersey and other state militias by local men.

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Nutley Sons Honor Roll by Anthony Buccino

Nutley Sons Honor Roll


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BELLEVILLE SONS HONOR ROLL - Remembering the men who paid for our freedom

Belleville and Nutley in the Civil War - a Brief History

Anthony Buccino